The British Empire must leave Chagos, A Friendly advice to king Charles III
The British Empire actually died on 15th August when the Brits had to leave India to the Indians. However it got fully buried only by 1970’s by which time all other Occupied countries won their independence. Though several small island territories in Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Ocean still remain under control of London.
After usurping the lands of the natives the English had established an empire comprising 13 colonies in a vast virgin continent which they had “disc London” (as if it was lost before that ) for themselves and named it North America. However the Colonies United and declared themselves independent in 1776.
It was a huge loss but by that time in similar manner they had “discovered” and usurped numerous islands all over the world. They also had made entry into Australia, Africa and Asia. The British East India Company meanwhile was making rapid stride through subterfuge of all kinds on the Indian Subcontinent. They first managed to gain a trading outpost at Surat in 1619 by begging and bowing to the Great Moghul Emperor. Though schemes of the highest order, It still took them 146 years to be appointed as the Diwan of the Mughal Emperor in 1765.
Then 92 years later in 1857 the Diwan declared war against his own Master, the last Mughal Emperor and not only dethroned him but also exiled him to Myanmar. The servants had the audacity of accusing the Emperor of rebellion and even cruelly massacred some of his sons and relatives.. Acting quickly the Ruler of Britain took over from the Diwan and India became the Jewel in the Crown of the British Empire.
After looting around 45 trillion dollars worth and causing death of more than 6 millions, the Brits showed sense and vacated India instead of being thrown out violently sooner than later. However before leaving they divided the country into two India and Pakistan. The partition
Itself led to killing of nearly two millions. They played another parting Great Game by telling the 584 odd Princes that they could remain independent or merge with India and Pakistan. Patel the Indian Home Minister foiled the would be chaos. Hyderabad and Junagadh crisis were resolved in time but Kashmir took time. The delay in merger gave enough time to Pakistan to invade. They were thrown back but the UN cease fire ensured that they still retain one third of the territory of erstwhile state of Jammu and Kashmir.
Then from 1947 onwards the Brits have kept playing the game and 3ven now their BBC, their newspapers and their Members of Parliament have the temerity to call the Union territory of J&K as Indian Occupied Kashmir ! They think it akin to their British Occupied Scotland and British Occupied Northern Ireland.
In fact this year India has told the UN Military Observers Group in Kashmir that need to vacate India. They better do so or be ready to be thrown out unceremoniously.
Below is a table taken from Wikipedia regarding the erstwhile British Empire :
|Date||Year of independence or first stage|
|Antigua and Barbuda||Antigua, Leeward Islands[a]||1 November||1981|
|Belize||British Honduras||21 September||1981|
|Dominica||Dominica, Windward Islands[a]||3 November||1978|
|Egypt||28 February||1922||Control over the Suez Canal Zone was maintained until 1956.|
|Eswatini||6 September||1968||Initially called Swaziland, which was also its pre-independence name. Renamed itself Eswatini in 2018.|
|Ghana||Gold Coast, Togoland (Togoland got absorbed into the Gold Coast in 1957)||6 March||1957|
|Grenada||Grenada, Windward Islands[a]||7 February||1974|
|Guyana||British Guiana||26 May||1966|
|India||British India||15 August||1947|
|Iraq||3 October||1932||Pursuant to the British Mandate for Mesopotamia|
|Israel||Mandatory Palestine||14 May||1948|
|Jamaica||6 August||1962||Independence Day (6 August)|
|Kiribati||Gilbert and Ellice Islands||12 July||1979|
|Libya||24 December||1951||From 1943 to 1951 Libya was under the control of Britain and France. On 24 December 1951, Libya declared its independence and became the United Kingdom of Libya.|
|Malaya||31 August||1957||Federation of Malaya Independence Act 1957.|
|Myanmar||4 January||1948||Gained independence as Burma. Renamed Myanmar in 1989, but still officially known by the United Kingdom government as Burma.|
|Nauru||31 January||1968||Independence from the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand on 31 January 1968.|
|Nigeria||1 October||1960||Took in Northern Cameroons|
|Oman||Sultanate of Muscat and Oman||20 December||1970|
|Pakistan||British India||14 August||1947||Partition of India|
Bangladesh gained independence from Pakistan on 26 March 1971.
|Qatar||British Qatari Protectorate||3 September||1971|
|Saint Lucia||St Lucia, Windward Islands[a]||22 February||1979|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis||St Kitts–Nevis and Anguilla, Leeward Islands[a]||19 September||1983|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||St Vincent, Windward Islands[a]||27 October||1979|
|Sierra Leone||27 April||1961|
|Solomon Islands||British Solomon Islands||7 July||1978|
|Somaliland||British Somaliland Protectorate||26 June||1960||The British Somaliland Protectorate gained independence on 26 June 1960 then united with the Trust Territory of Somalia on 1 July 1960 to form the Somali Republic, but later broke away and unilaterally declared independence, which is internationally unrecognised.|
|South Yemen||Protectorate of South Arabia|
Federation of South Arabia
|30 November||1967||Merged with North Yemen to form Yemen in 1990|
|Sri Lanka||Ceylon||4 February||1948||Gained independence as the Dominion of Ceylon. Renamed Sri Lanka in 1972.|
|Sudan||1 January||1956||South Sudan gained independence from Sudan on 9 July 2011.|
|Tanganyika||9 December||1961||Tanganyika became independent on 9 December 1961. It joined with Zanzibar on 25 April 1964 to form Tanzania.|
|The Bahamas||10 July||1973||Bahamas Independence Act 1973|
|The Gambia||Gambia||18 February||1965|
|Trinidad and Tobago||31 August||1962||Independence Day (August 31st)|
|Tuvalu||Gilbert and Ellice Islands||1 October||1978|
|United Arab Emirates||Trucial States||2 December||1971||National Day (United Arab Emirates)|
|United States||Thirteen American Colonies||4 July||1776||Fourth of July. Declaration of Independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1776. British government recognized independence in 1783 with the Treaty of Paris.|
|Vanuatu||New Hebrides||30 July||1980||Independence from United Kingdom and France in 1980|
|Zambia||Northern Rhodesia||24 October||1964|
|Zanzibar||10 December||1963||Zanzibar became independent on 10 December 1963. It joined with Tanganyika on 25 April 1964 to form Tanzania.|
|Zimbabwe||Southern Rhodesia||18 April|
|Northern Cameroons||Nigeria||1 October||1961||British Mandate territory in West Africa. In the 1961 British Cameroons referendum, the Northern Cameroons voted to join Nigeria (which itself gained independence from the United Kingdom), while the Southern Cameroons voted to join the Republic of Cameroun (which itself gained independence from France).|
|Southern Cameroons||Cameroon||1 October||1961||British Mandate territory in West Africa. In the 1961 British Cameroons referendum, the Northern Cameroons voted to join Nigeria (which itself gained independence from the United Kingdom), while the Southern Cameroons voted to join the Republic of Cameroun (which itself gained independence from France).|
|British Occupation zone in Germany||West Germany||23 May||1949||Nazi Germany occupied by Britain, France, the United States and the Soviet Union in 1945. Unlike in Austria, no German central government was retained in any of the occupation zones. The British and American occupation zones were merged in 1947 to form the Bizone, and the French zone was added into it in 1948. The resulting Trizone became host to a new German central government on 23 May 1949, with which the former Soviet zone — which had established a central government of its own called the German Democratic Republic – reunified on 3 October 1990.|
|Hong Kong||People’s Republic of China||30 June||1997||In 1984 the British government signed the Sino-British Joint Declaration with China and agreed to turn over Hong Kong and its dependencies in 1997. British rule ended on 30 June 1997, with China taking over at midnight, 1 July 1997 (at end of the 99-year lease).|
|North Borneo||Malaya[e]||16 September||1963||British protectorate established in 1881. Proclaimed a Crown Colony in 1946, and became a part of Malaysia on 16 September 1963 as the state of Sabah.|
|Sarawak||Malaya[e]||16 September||1963||Independent Raj of Sarawak 1841-1946. Annexed by Britain as a Crown Colony in 1946, and became a part of Malaysia on 16 September 1963.|
|Singapore||Malaya[e]||16 September||1963||Became self-governing on 3 June 1959, and became a part of Malaysia on 16 September 1963. Subsequently gained independence from Malaysia on the 9 August 1965. Countries still under Britain|
|Countries of Northern Ireland|
|Scotland||In the 2014 Scottish independence referendum, 55.3% of voters who qualified as residents of Scotland, chose ‘No’ to the question: ‘Should Scotland be an independent country?’ 44.7% of voters chose ‘Yes’ In March 2017, preliminary negotiations to begin to prepare an agreement to run a second referendum were proposed by the Scottish Parliament but were rejected out of hand by the Prime Minister. The proposal of preliminary negotiations was triggered by the Brexit vote, which saw a majority of voters in England and Wales vote to leave the EU while a majority in Scotland and Northern Ireland voted to remain Overseas Islands Still under British Occupation Occupation|
|Anguilla||Caribbean, North Atlantic Ocean||“Unity, Strength and Endurance”||91 km2 (35.1 sq mi)||$299 million||$20,307||14,869 (2019 estimate)||The Valley|
|Bermuda||North Atlantic Ocean between the Azores, the Caribbean, Cape Sable Island in Canada, and Cape Hatteras (its nearest neighbour) in the United States||“Quo fata ferunt” (Latin; “Whither the Fates carry [us]”)||54 km2 (20.8 sq mi)||$6.464 billion||$102,987||62,506 (2019 estimate)||Hamilton|
|British Antarctic Territory||Antarctica||“Research and discovery”||1,709,400 km2 (660,000 sq mi)||0|
50 non-permanent in winter, over 400 in summer (research personnel)
|Rothera (main base)||Subject to the Antarctic Treaty System.|
|British Indian Ocean Territory||Indian Ocean||“In tutela nostra Limuria” (Latin; “Limuria is in our charge”)||60 km2 (23 sq mi)||0|
3,000 non-permanent (UK and US military and staff personnel; estimate)
|Naval Support Facility Diego Garcia (base)||Claimed by Mauritius.|
|British Virgin Islands||Caribbean, North Atlantic Ocean||“Vigilate” (Latin; “Be watchful”)||153 km2 (59 sq mi)||$1.05 billion||$48,511||31,758 (2018 census)||Road Town|
|Cayman Islands||Caribbean||“He hath founded it upon the seas”||264 km2 (101.9 sq mi)||$4.298 billion||$85,474||78,554 (2022 report)||George Town|
|Falkland Islands||South Atlantic Ocean||“Desire the right”||12,173 km2 (4,700 sq mi)||$164.5 million||$70,800||3,377 (2019 estimate)|
1,350 non-permanent (UK military personnel; 2012 estimate)
|Stanley||Claimed by Argentina. In 1982 the Falklands War was fought over control of the islands.|
|Gibraltar||Iberian Peninsula, Continental Europe||“Nulli expugnabilis hosti” (Latin; “No enemy shall expel us”)||6.5 km2 (2.5 sq mi)||$3.08 billion||$92,843||33,701 (2019 estimate)|
1,250 non-permanent (UK military personnel; 2012 estimate)
|Gibraltar||Claimed by Spain.|
|Montserrat||Caribbean, North Atlantic Ocean||“A people of excellence, moulded by nature, nurtured by God”||101 km2 (39 sq mi)||$61 million||$12,181||5,215 (2019 census)||Plymouth (de jure, but abandoned due to Soufrière Hills volcanic eruption. De facto capital is Brades)|
|Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie and Oeno Islands||Pacific Ocean||47 km2 (18 sq mi)||$144,715||$2,894||50 (2018 estimate)|
6 non-permanent (2014 estimate)
|Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha,|
|South Atlantic Ocean||420 km2 (162 sq mi)||$55.7 million||$12,230||5,633 (total; 2016 census)||Jamestown|
|Saint Helena||“Loyal and Unshakeable” (Saint Helena)||4,349 (Saint Helena; 2019 census)|
|Ascension Island||880 (Ascension; estimate)|
1,000 non-permanent (Ascension; UK military personnel; estimate)
|Tristan da Cunha||“Our faith is our strength” (Tristan da Cunha)||300 (Tristan da Cunha; estimate)|
9 non-permanent (Tristan da Cunha; weather personnel)
|South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands||South Atlantic Ocean||“Leo terram propriam protegat” (Latin; “Let the lion protect his own land”)||3,903 km2 (1,507 sq mi)||0|
99 non-permanent (officials and research personnel)
|King Edward Point||Claimed by Argentina. The islands were occupied by Argentina during the Falklands War in 1982.|
|Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia||Cyprus, Mediterranean Sea||255 km2 (98 sq mi)||7,700 (Cypriots; estimate)|
8,000 non-permanent (UK military personnel and their families; estimate)
Similarly time has come for Britain to hand over Chagos Archipelago to Mauritius. They should not even think of retaining Chagos like the Malvinas ( Falklands ). In fact for the good health of Commonwealth Britain must vacate all islands They still retain within the Indian Ocean.
British and other European colonial exploitation of Indian Ocean resources have resulted in the enormous degradation of both the terrestrial and oceanic environments. Deforestation, cultivation, and guano mining have had undesirable effects on terrestrial ecosystems. Guano mining, which removed vegetation and scraped the land surface, caused the destruction of much native flora and fauna, and hunting and the introduction of exotic species have altered the ecological balance that previously existed. Man-made threats to the oceanic environment are of more recent origin.
In the late 18th century France took possession of the Chagos Archipelago and Seychelles as dependencies of Mauritius, and coconut plantations were established to produce copra. Slaves were imported from Africa to work the plantations. In the early 19th century the British took over the islands. Mauritius and its dependencies were officially proclaimed a colony of Britain in 1814 under the Treaty of Paris. Seychelles was later detached from Mauritius and became a separate colony of Britain in 1903.
During the Cold War an agreement between the governments of Britain and the United States led to the creation in 1965 of the British Indian Ocean Territory for the purpose of establishing defense and communications facilities to counterbalance the Soviet military presence in the region. The new territory comprised the Aldabra Islands and the Farquhar and Desroches islands, formerly part of the Seychelles colony, along with the Chagos Archipelago, formerly part of the Mauritius colony.
A major British-U.S. military facility was built on Diego Garcia in 1971, and the plantations there were closed. Between 1967 and 1973, Britain removed the Ilois, or Chagossians—inhabitants of the Chagos Archipelago, descended from African slaves and Indian plantation workers.
They were given the choice of resettlement in either Seychelles or Mauritius, which became independent in 1968; the majority chose the latter. A small number of Ilois went to the United Kingdom. In 1976 the islands obtained from Seychelles were returned when that colony became independent.
Thereafter the British Indian Ocean Territory comprised only the islands of the Chagos Archipelago.
Expansion of the military facilities during the late 1970s and ’80s was opposed by neighbouring states, who viewed the base as compromising the nonmilitarized status of the Indian Ocean region. Numerous air strikes were launched from Diego Garcia during the Persian Gulf War (1990–91), the U.S.-led attacks on Afghanistan (2001), and the initial phase (2003) of the Iraq War.
In 2000 the British High Court found that the removal of the Ilois had been illegal. The court granted them the immediate right to return to any of the islands except Diego Garcia, although the Ilois maintained that the right to return to that atoll would have to be part of any resolution. At the time of the ruling, the Ilois numbered some 5,000. British and U.S. officials opposed the plan for resettlement, but in 2006 the High Court upheld its decision.
In 2007 the British government lost its case before the Court of Appeal but announced its intention to challenge that decision in the House of Lords. The following year a majority of the panel of five Law Lords ruled against the islanders, although the government expressed regret for the original resettlement.
In April 2010 the British government announced its intention to establish a marine reserve covering some 210,000 square miles (544,000 square km) of ocean surrounding the archipelago, which would create a vast protected area in which all fishing would be banned. Many Chagossians objected on the grounds that, were they eventually able to return to the islands, the ban would leave them without a livelihood.
Discussion about the legality of the British government’s actions in the 1960s and ’70s regarding the Chagos Archipelago rose to the fore again when the UN General Assembly formally requested in 2017 that the UN’s judicial organ, the International Court of Justice (ICJ), render an advisory opinion on whether the decolonization of Mauritius, with regard to the Chagos Archipelago, had been lawfully completed and what the consequences, under international law, of British rule over the Chagos Archipelago were.
During the proceedings, Mauritius stated that it had been forced to give up the islands of the Chagos Archipelago in exchange for its independence in 1968. The ICJ’s ruling, which came in February 2019, found that the decolonization process had been illegal and recommended that the United Kingdom end its administration of the Chagos Archipelago as soon as possible, which would open the way for the return of the islands to Mauritius.
Till now Britain may be thinking that the ruling given by ICJ was just an advisory ruling, it was nonbinding, and it did carry international weight. They are highly mistaken. Time has come for Asia to be left completely to the Asians. In case economically feasible for them then for time being they may retain Islands in Pacific and Atlantic.
However Chagos no more ….must be vacated dear King Charles III.